What came as the third was the social impact of slam and the development of its internal conflicts in the time of the Eastern and Western Chagatai Khanates and Yarkand Khanate. On the whole, Eastern Chagatai Khanate and Yarkand Khanate were always in political turmoil, the succession of khanship often relied on support of strong and powerful families through plots. Both those who tried to get the khanship and those who succeeded went all out to demonstrate their piety and support for Islam, with the aim of winning endorsement of local Islamic forces. Political interferences, plus the general public’s expectation for some supernatural power to save them from social turmoil, led to the rapid growth of religion. As an accentuated manifestation of politics’ interference with religion, the bidders for the khan ship utilized some religious sects and cracked down upon others. Such interference resulted in serious religious inter-sect conflicts and xenophobia locally. The entry of the Junggar forces pushed local political and inter-sect conflicts to a new height.
- Junggar Khanate
In the Ming Dynasty, roaming in the Dzavhan and Hovd river basins in the west of the Mongolian Steppe as well as the upper Ertix and Yenisei were the Woyila division of the Mongols, who were called Wala in the Ming Dynasty and Oyrat in the Qing Dynasty. When Wala entered the Western Regions, the rising Yarkand Khanate resisted their expansion there. Between 1655 and 1656 (the 12th- 13th years of Shunzhi reign of Qing Dynasty, 1066 in Muslim Calendar), the Yarkand Khan, Yolebars, with the support of the Aktaglik Sectï¼once again defeated, at Niya, the Oyrat (Wala) troops invading Khotan. Afterwards, Oyrat took advantage of domestic conflicts within Yarkand and gradually gained the upper hand. In 1667 (the 6th year of Kangxi reign), Abdul Rahman Khan abdicated and his younger brother Ismail was installed as Khan by the Karataglik Sect at Aksu. They then sent troops to Yarkand to seize the political power. Oyrat was part of this operation and won its first military victory near Yarkand. Shortly after, the Aktaglik Sect claimed the son of Abdul Rahman Khan, Yolebars, to be the new khan and sent troops to attack Aksu, where they got support from the chief of Oyrat, Sengge Khan. However, there were some Chinesisches Horoskop other Oyrats who remained supportive of the Karataglik Sect. Eventually the Aktaglik Sect prevailed over its rival, but the Oyrats took advantage of their military victory and seized control of Yarkand Khanate. Yolebars was forced to give up his power and let Oyrat designate his son as the khan. Oyrat also sent supervising officials over to “protect” Yarkand Khanate, backed up with military forces. Even at that point the fight between the Aktaglik and Karataglik Sects was far from over. At first the Karataglik Sect succeeded in a coup d’etat with the support of the Oyrat supervising official, then the Aktaglik Sect fought back and quelled the rebellion. Then Oyrat supported the Karataglik Sect and joined forces with Ismail in Aksu to attack Yarkand.