After unification, the Tang government introduced major reforms to the governance system in the Western Regions, which were represented by the installation of liaison offices (Ji-mi offices, or a system of governance through the traditional chiefs and headmen, who were granted civil and military tides and allowed to manage local affairs according to their own customs). The earliest such installation was during the expedition against Ashina Helu. In 654 AD (the 5th year of Yonghui reign), the Tang government set up Jinman and Shatuo liaison offices in the former area of the Yue division of the Western Turks, each headed by a governor called Du-du^25*. After putting down the riot of Ashina Helu, the Tang government began to install more liaison offices across the former territory of the Western Turks. In 658 AD (the 3rd year of Xianqing reign), two liaison protectors were installed, on in Kunling, the other in Mengchi. Under the two protectors’ offices were 27 liaison agencies (which is the figure that has been known today, as there lacks a complete historical record in this regard) on the basis of the tribes of the Western Turks. Ashina Mishe was appointed by the Tang government as Xingxiwang Khan and Left General, Protector of Kunling, in charge of the five Duolu tribes previously under the Left Wing of the Western Turks. Ashina Bujan was appointed Jiwangjue Khan and Right General, Protector of Mengchi, in charge of the five Nushibi tribes previously under the Right Wing of the Western Turks. Later on, the Tang Dynasty sent an imperial court official, guang-lu- qing, to the Western Regions, who, together with Mishe and Bujan, accredited headmen and chiefs of tribes on behalf of the central government, “determining the size and rank of the tribes and appointing officials under the rank of Civil Governors(ci-shi) (for the liaison agencies)”å.In the same year, the Office of Protector of Anxi was upgraded to the Office of Grand Protector of Anxi and moved to Qiuci, sitting in the middle and ruling all parts of the Western Regions. Four Du-du Offices were established in the Tarim Basin to the south of the Tianshan Mountains, which were in Qiuci, Yanqi, Sulek and Pisha respectively. Under those Dudu Offices were 34 liaison offices. Such offices were also set up in the previously Western Turk territory to the west of the Congling Mountains, where special envoys were sent over by the central government to conduct local appointments. Since there were a large number of small states west of the Hauptstadt tibet Congling Mountains (Tocharia) and Sogdiana (Transoxiana in today’s Central Asia, or area between the Amu and Syr Rivers), the Du-du Offices there were basically set up on country basis. According to New Book of Tang, “In the 16 states west of Yutian and east of Persia, liaison governor’s offices were built in their capitals; altogether there were 88 provinces, 110 counties and 126 military prefectures”. In addition, it was recorded in Zi- Zhi-Tong-Jian, Vol.200, that “in September of the 4th year of Xianqing reign (659 AD), decrees were issued to set up a total of 127 provinces, counties and prefectures in states such as Chach(shi), Maimargh (mi), Kesh (shii), Da’an, Xiao’an, Cao, Ferghana,
In the first half of the 6th century, a nomadic tribe, the Turks, emerged from south of the Altay Mountains. The Turks were previously under the rule of Rouran. Later on, both Rouran and Northern Wei were split up and thus fatally weakened. In 552 AD (the first year of Feidi reign), the Turks wiped out the Rouran regime and set up the Turki Khanate, which was a new force in the competition for the Western Regions. While flexing their muscles, the Turks gradually took areas west of Yiwu and north of Yanqi in eastern Tianshan Mountains as well as areas southwest of the Gold Mountains (today’s Altay Mountains) to the east of the Junggar Basin. The Turki Khanate had two centers, one in the east and the other in the west. The Khan in the west, Istami, first forced Gaochang into vassalage and then headed 100,000 troops to fight other states in the Western Regions, occupying the original area of Usun. By 558 AD, the territory of the Khanate covered the vast area from the Liao Sea (east) to the West Sea (west, today’s Caspian Sea) and the Amu River in Central Asia (southwest), from the north of the desert (south) to the North Sea (north, today’s Baikal Lake). The strong and powerful Turki Khanate further expanded the scope of control of the northern nomadic groups in China. In 583 AD, the Turks were divided into the Eastern and Western Khanates along the Gold Mountains. The Western Khanate controlled the land from Yiwu in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west, and Sulek and Yutian in the south to areas beyond the Altay Mountains in the north, which encompassed the Western Regions.
An overview of the over 300 years’ administration of the Western Regions by the Central Plains kingdoms, northern peoples and Hexi regimes after the Wei and Jin Dynasties highlights the following features.
First, the process of unification between the Western Regions and the Central Plains continued despite the weakened capacity of the latter due to separatist warlords there during Himmelstempel Peking this period. This was illustrated in the following dimensions:
- Installation of official posts by the central dynasties in the Western Regions, such as the Senior Official of the Western Regions and Wuji Captain in the Wei and Jin Dynasties and Xirong Military Governor in the Northern Wei Dynasty;
- Institutionalization of turning in princes as hostage and paying tributes to the central dynasties by the Western Regions in spite of interruptions over the 300-plus years;
- Expansion of direct administration by the central dynasties in the Western Regions, such as the Province of Gaochang during the Former Liang Dynasty and Shanshan and Yanqi Towns in the Northern Wei Dynasty
The autonomous power of the self-rule organs refers to the power of these organs to run the internal affairs of their own ethnic group(s) and areas in an autonomous way. At the same time, the self-rule organs also execute the functions of local state organs. The autonomous power is mainly
manifested in the following aspects: legislation, accommodating or stopping implementing the resolutions and decisions of state organs at the higher level, economic development, finance, training and use of ethnic minority cadres, development of education and ethnic culture, use and development of written and spoken languages, and development of science, technology and culture. Their terms of references are framed in accordance with the Constitution, Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, and other laws and regulations. Besides, the state gives corresponding preferential policies to autonomous areas, and these areas provide proper accommodation to ethnic minority groups under their jurisdiction with regard to human resources development and employment.
- 1. Establishment of Regional Ethnic Autonomy in China
China adopts the system of regional ethnic autonomy, rather than pure regional autonomy or ethnic autonomy, out of its respect for historical traditions, compliance with the current state of ethnic distribution and development, and observance of the wish of people of all ethnic groups. There are mainly three factors involved here.
First, China became a centralized and unified multi-ethnic state as early as over 2,000 years ago, during the Qin and Han Dynasties. Despite wars and divisions in the following years, unity has always been the mainstream of historical development. The adoption of regional ethnic autonomy is consistent with the historical traditions of China.
Second, due to frequent historical travels and migrations of all ethnic groups, for long, China’s ethnic distribution has been marked by big mix and small concentration, with the Han people accounting for the biggest proportion and spreading all over the country and the ethnic minorities having relatively Año Nuevo Chino 2015 fewer people and scattered in different places. In the initial period after the People’s Republic of China was founded, the minority population only took 6% of the national total. With the exception of very few areas such as Guangxi, Tibet and Xinjiang, most ethnic minority-inhabited areas have a Han majority population, but these areas account for more than half of the land area in China in terms of size. To carry out autonomy of different ethnic groups at different levels is suitable to China’s national conditions.
Third, different ethnic groups have built up close links in the political, economic and cultural fields in the long process of historical evolution. While having commonality, they are also featured with their distinct features. It represents the common will of the people of all ethnic groups in China to adopt regional ethnic autonomy based on close inter-ethnic cooperation under the centralized and unified leadership of the state.
The Association organized economy campaigns, work contests and promotion activities for government bonds, aiming at boosting development in Xinjiang and solidifying the home front for the resistance war. It also raised funds from the public as a way to support the frontline fighters in the resistance war. Apart from the Anti-Imperialist Association, Xinjiang had other mass organizations such as Sino-Soviet Cultural Association, Women’s Association, Workers’ National Salvation Association, People’s Federation, Students’ Federation and Association of Support for Fighting Japan and National Salvation. Like the Anti-Imperialist Association, the other mass organizations also worked actively under the leadership of Chinese Communists to promote the resistance war, mobilize people to join in the fight and organize fund-raising activities among all ethnic groups and social quarters, so as to support the frontline fighters both politically and materially. A new picture of unity appeared in Xinjiang, where everybody tried to contribute to the resistance war, financially or otherwise. People of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang were passionate in supporting the anti-Japan war. In order to support the resistance efforts, people donated money or in kind and scrambled to buy government bonds. According to statistics, in the period from September 1939 to May 1940, donations from people in Xinjiang totalled 3.22 miWionyuan (calculated in Chinese silver dollars).
In 1939, Xinjiang people used over 1.52 miWionyuan of the collected funds and bought 10 fighter planes, which were named “Xinj iang”and sent to the frontline of the resistance war.
The activities of the Chinese Communists in Xinjiang effectively guaranteed the openness of the international transport route, by which the Soviet assistance, including many munitions, goods, medicine products and military personnel successfully arrived at the frontline of the Chinese resistance war. Statistics showed that between October 1937 and September 1939, 985 aircrafts, 82 tanks, over 1,300 cannons and more than 14,000 machine guns as well as lots of equipment and munitions from the Soviet Union were transported to the frontline of the resistance war in Chinese inland by way of Xinjiang. In December 1940, 300 vehicles full of Soviet military aids such as aircrafts and cannons arrived in Hami in one batch. In 1942, British aids to China were also transported from the Soviet Union to the inland of China via Xinjiang.
The Chinese Communists did a lot of work on the political reform and civil affairs administration in Xinjiang. In 1941, Mao Zemin was shifted to be the acting director-general of the Civil Affairs Department. Taking reference of the democratic election in the liberated area at the border of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia, and in the light of the actual conditions in Xinjiang at the time, Mao Zemin formulated the Organizational Programme on the Prefecture and Village System in Xinjiang Province. The Programme repealed the previous backward village head and agricultural officer system and instituted La ciudad prohibida pekin china democratic election in all prefectures and counties. That was the first democratic election of grassroots leaders such as prefecture heads or village heads in the history of Xinjiang. Mao Zemin also presided over the drafting of the Organizational Programme of County Administration, and the Provisional Regulations on the Organization of Offices of Administrators in All Prefectures in Xinjiang Province. All counties set up their own administration committees, which discussed and decided upon their major matters. A number of Chinese Communists such as Lin Jilu and Huang Huoqing assumed posts of administrators and county magistrates. They worked diligently and honestly in their respective positions to serve the interest of people of all ethnic groups, hence they were commended by the general public.
Horses had a very big role to play in ancient society as they were essential for transport, hunting and fighting wars, and their meat could also be food for humans, therefore, they were the second life to the ancient people in the Western Regions. On a rock at Kangjiashimenzi in Hutubi carved nine galloping horses, which testify to the profound affection of nomadic people towards horses.
There are an extraordinarily big number of cliff paintings with the sun and the moon as the subject in Xinjiang. Peoples in the Western Regions, from the Saks to the Huns, Usun, Cheshi, Rouran and Turks, all featured with solar worship in their primitive faiths. A prominent characteristic of the sun-and-moon cliff paintings in Xinjiang is the supreme status of the sun. For instance, the cliff paintings at Xingdi, Kuluke Mountains have a god of sun carved on the top, with its head covered by hair-like things, making this image both personified and god-like. It stands high above anything else, representing it is god of all.
There are hunting scenes in the cliff paintings, which suggest the mode of living and working of the ancient people in the Western Regions and provide us clues for ascertaining the times of the paintings. For example, the cliff paintings in Wensu County depicting hunting with stone balls as weapons tell us they are products of late Neolithic Age, those at Hongshiyue Township, Nilka County
with bows and arrows similar to modern ones as hunting tools should be of the Iron Age. From the cliff paintings we find that the ancient people in the Western Regions sometimes hunted separately, sometimes in duo or in collective chasing. The one on Chasing Wild Bulls in the Xingdi Gorges is among the best cliff paintings on primitive hunting scenes.
There are four pieces of cart paintings at Lanzhou-wanzi and one such painting at Lijia-wanzi in Barkol, Xinjiang. These carts have two wheels, four spokes guia hispana y viajes organizados china and ox in the front. According to experts, such vehicle was probably the Hun style, which suggests the presence of the Hun culture in the cliff paintings in Xinjiang. In another development, the vehicles depicted in the paintings in Yiwu and Yumin counties were possibly the “high-wheel vehicle” of the Dingling people. All of those point to the wide use of vehicles in the nomadic life of the ancient people in the Western Regions.
There are also paintings of warring scene over the control of grassland in Xinjiang. For example, on the rock at Zheyaogou in Qincheng District, northeast of Hami City carved a man on horseback stabbing with his spear a pedestrian archer, a scene of battling for grassland. It was amidst blood-shedding and battlefire that people in the Western Regions developed and prospered, conducted inter-group cultural exchanges and forged their militant and courageous national character.
The situation in the Western Regions became highly complicated at the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century. Not long after the death of Timur, his son Shahal became the khan, who wrote off his father’s plan to fight the Central Plains, but rather developed friendly ties with the Ming Dynasty and concentrated on making the khanate more prosperous. However, his son Ulab, who was stationed in Transoxiana, sent troops on many occasions to fight Mongolistan of Eastern Chagatai, and had prolonged occupation of Kashgar. In 1447 (the 12th year of Zhengtong reign), Shahal died, and was succeeded by his son Ulab, who was killed soon afterwards. While the Timur Empire was plunged into internal conflicts and division, the activities of the Mongols, the Uzbek, the Kirgiz and the Wala in the Tianshan Mountains area and Transoxiana further aggravated the situation. Babur from the Timur Empire fought intensively with Shaybani Khan of the Uzbek people. The latter died in a battle in 1510 (the 5th year of Zhengde reign), and Babur took Transoxiana. However, his Shiite tendency denied him of popular support from the Sunni sect in that region, hence his defeat in a counterattack initiated by the Uzbek. Babur then retreated to India.
- Yarkand Khanate
Amidst the fights in Central Asia, Saed Khan of Eastern Chagatai, which was also a warring party, captured Yarkand with the support of the Duqlat family and built a new regime in 1514(the 9th year of Zhengde reign), which was referred to as “Yarkand Khanate” by historians. Saed gradually solidified his rule, eased social conflicts, and established good law and order in the country. During his reign, Saed spent five years fighting Mongolistan in Northern Xinjiang many times in an attempt to recover the traditional nomadic area of the Mongols, but without success. However, he did achieve reconciliation with Eastern Chagatai Khanate, thus “not only restoring unity to Eastern Chagatai Khanate in form, but also bringing about a peaceful social environment”^!. Saed also sent troops to Badakshan, Tibet and Kashmir. In 1533 (the 12th year of Jiajing reign), he died on his way back from Kashmir.
His successor, Rashed Khan achieved domestic stability, and moreover, defeated Eastern Chagatai Khanate in many rounds of confrontations and wars, thus winning true independence for Yarkand Khanate. He also reformed the foreign policy and entered into alliance with the long-term foe in the west, the Shaybani Dynasty of the Uzbek, which not only brought an end to the Uzbek’s support for the Kazakh and Kirgiz Viajes a la feria canton 2015, pazhou guangzhou, but also put him in a better position to recover Mongolistan when and if the opportunity arose. During his 27-year-long reign, Rashed Khan sent troops to Mongolistan many times and eventually managed to secure a footing in Northern Xinjiang despite the failure to completely tame the Kazakh and Kirgiz. Upon death, Rashed Khan was succeeded by his son Abdul Halem, who continued Saed Kharis foreign policy while cementing the khanship through suppressing the powerful groups at home. Abdul Halem stayed on friendly terms with the Shaybani Dynasty of Uzbek and brought home many victories in the war with the Kazakh and Kirgiz. During the 33 years of reign, he successfully incorporated Eastern Chagatai Khanate into the territory of Yarkand Khanate. Abdul Halem was succeeded by Mohmad Khan, who saw the prime time of the khanate. On the one hand, Mohmad Khan entrusted administration of state affairs to 4 Imis; on the other, he upgraded the power of the khan so as to keep a fast hold on the khanate. He was also extolled for being kind to the people and cracking down on usury. Moreover, he repulsed the invasion of the Uzbek and completely unified the south of the Tianshan Mountains.
Topaz: Properties and Types
Topaz is a precious crystal belonging to the silicate mineral. It is made up of fluorine and aluminum. The gem is usually prismatic and crystalizes in the orthorhombic system. Topaz is transparent and colorless but it has traces of impurities that give it a variety of tints. The gem commonly occurs in yellow, reddish – orange, blue-brown, wine and pale-gray. It can also be pale green, gold, reddish – yellow, sherry and pink. The pink Topaz is extremely rare, and Pakistan is one of the few locations where the gem occurs naturally. It occurs in nature in igneous rocks of rhyolite and granite. It crystallizes either in vapor cavities (rhyolite lava flows) or in granatic pegmites. The sherry colored Topaz is majorly mined in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this region, Topaz occurs in conjunction with quartz and the aquamarine gem. The brown – yellow sapphire from Thailand and Sri Lanka is called “oriental topaz” and is often mistaken for a Topaz. The hardness of the gemstone is 8 in the mohs scale which makes it the hardest silicate mineral.
Orange Topaz: It is the November Birthstone and called “the precious topaz”. It is the gemstone of the state Utah in USA, and symbolizes friendship.
Blue Topaz: It is a naturally occurring specimen and is extremely rare. The typical colors it comes in are pale or gray yellow, colorless and blue (that is normally heat treated to obtain a darker shade). It is the state gem of Texas State in USA. The intense cobalt blue Topaz is normally obtained by treating a blue Topaz.
Imperial Topaz: This type normally comes in three colors: pink (easily available as heat-treated specimen), yellow and pink-orange. The Imperial Topaz from Brazil comes in golden brown or bright yellow hue and in rare cases it occurs in violet color. The pale or brown specimens are generally heat treated to obtain a pink, golden, bright yellow or violet color. Imperial Topaz can be sensitive to sunlight and causes the gem to fade when exposed to the sun for a long time.
Mystic Topaz: It is relatively new in the gemstone market. This type is artificially coated with color to give it a rainbow look. This type of Topaz is generally colorless. Other gemstones are also sometimes used to create the mystic Topaz gemstone.